Sunday, January 31, 2010

Real Origin of the Shofar’s Significance: The Rabbi’s Rule

Real Origin of the Shofar’s Significance: The Rabbi’s Rule

Arthur L. Finkle

Although the Mishnah cites the origin for the sounding of the Shofar based in the Hebrew Scripture, the actuality is that the Mishnah and Talmud regularized and legitimatized the Shofar’s predominance at both Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur after the destruction of the Second Temple.

Mishnah Rosh HaShanah 3:3 cites that the Shofar is played on Yom Teruah (Day of Blasting or Rosh HaShanah) because it was sounded at the special sacrifice at Rosh HaShanah. Additionally, it was sounded on Yom Kippur to announce to Jubilee Year (every 50 years, Jews could reclaim their sold lands; Jewish slaves were freed; debts forgiven; etc.). Mishnah Rosh HaShanah 3:3 says in part:

The Shofar [blown in the Temple] at the New Year was [made from the horn] of the wild goat, straight, with its mouthpiece overlaid with gold. And at the sides [of them that blew the Shofar] were two (that blew upon) trumpets. The Shofar blew a long note and the trumpets a short note, since the duty of the day fell on the Shofar.

The Mishnah thus emphasizes that in Rosh HaShanah symbolized the Shofar; the trumpets, the other special days.

However, Hoenig does not trace a specific sacrifice relating to the sound of the Shofar at the Temple ritual for Rosh HaShanah.

Zeitlin traces the history of prayer as essential for history of religion because it traces the evolution of humankind’s relationship to God.

He indicates that, biblical horns blasts indicate a plague or another calamity. In many cases such blasts called an assembly, blew the Shofar and fasted, (Joel 2.15-16.)

Indeed, we learn that the Holiness Code that set apart a sacred occasion commemorated with loud blasts (Lev 24) as Zikhron tru’ah (commemoration by blasting) Also found in Num 29:1. The sounding of horns had various functions in Ancient Israel, as well as elsewhere in the Middle East. Usually, it was a method of assembling the people before moving on to a new location or of mustering troops for battle. Cultic uses as well. Here it is hint that there is a pilgrimage day at full moon (Sukot) (JPS Torah Commentary, Leviticus, p 160.)

The later prophets, however, preached the universality of God. They ceased calling the Temple, the house of God. Indeed, the universality bespeaks omnipotence and omnipresence. Isaiah declares: "Thus, said God, the heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; where is the house that ye may build unto Me? Where is the place that may be My resting place?" (Isa. 66.1).

In the Book of Psalms repentance is connected with prayer. In the Books of Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah confession was already a part of prayer. (Ps. 32.5; 41.5; 51.3-7).

The Hebrew Scriptures note that the first day of the seventh month shall be one of remembrance by sounding the blast of the horn (teruah). Though the practice of blowing trumpets is generally associated with the offering of sacrifices, as recorded in Numbers 10: 10: "And in your day of gladness and in your appointed seasons and in your new moons, ye shall sound with the trumpets (hatzotzerot) over your burnt offerings and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings, and they shall be to you for a memorial before your God,"

The Scriptures are support that “the blast of the horn" (tekiat shofar) is singled out on the first day of the seventh month (Rosh HaShanah) as an exceptional rite. Nevertheless, there are numerous verses that cite hatzotzerot (trumpets) associated the sacrificial cult, performed by Hezekiah, hatzotzerotin deed play a significant role. 4 Yet the Bible generally associates "blasts of sound" with Shofar, announcing assembly, travel or war. (Num. 10:1 ff.; 1 Chron. 15: 24.

Apparently hatzotzerot were the usual Temple musical instruments whereas Shofar was only for special occasions. Cf. "Musical Instruments," Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 472.


The delineation of Shofar for Rosh Hashanah and hatzotzerot for customary sacrifice became an early biblical norm. Hatzotzerot (trumpets) were used at every new moon at the sacrificial service; Shofar was an added distinction of the new moon of the seventh month, based upon the biblical nomenclature, Yom teruah, "a day of sounding the horn" or "trumpet day."

Indeed, Philo (a 1st century Jewish/Hellenistic historian/philosopher mentions that there was a double sacrifice on Rosh HaShanah (The Special Laws I, I80 (Vol. VII, Loeb Classical Library). However, Josephus, former Israeli general who became allied with the conquering Roman authorities, does not mention the blowing of the Shofar for the seventh month. ((Ant. 3. Io. 2 [239]))

At this point, we introduce some ambiguity of language. Though Hebrew usage distinguishes between Shofar and hatzotzerot, the Greek word is the translation for both instruments. Accordingly, when Philo uses the expression "trumpet day," it is definite that he refers here not to hatzotzerot but to Shofar, (Zeitlin).

Philo's reasons for the blowing of Shofar on "trumpet day," therefore, are: a) a reminder of the Sinaitic revelation. b) an instrument of war. c) a thanks-offering to God, the peace-maker and peace-keeper.

On that occasion too the Levites sang Psalm 8I which contains the passage "Blow the Shofar on the new moon, etc." (Jerusalem Talmud R.H. 59c; R.H. 30b).

After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai proclaimed the Shofar be sounded in Jabneh (where his school was located) on Rosh Hashanah, even if Rosh HaShanah occurred on the Sabbath, continuing the practice of the Temple. His subsequent takkonot (proclamations) in this emergency of losing the Temple and replacing it with the synagogue. Expanded the situs to any place in Israel where there was an official Bet Din ( Zeitlin, "The Takkanot of Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai," JQR (Oct. 1964), p. 290.)

The practice of sounding the notes of the traditional Shofar sounds finds some support in bible for tekiah and teruah. However, there is no order given as to the order or pitch, timbre, or intensity. The manner of observance of Yom Teruah (day of blasting) or Zikron Teruah (memorial of sound) is not specified. Such is set forth only in the Mishnah Rosh Hashanah where a third note was instituted by Rabbi Abbahu of Caesarea (circa 300 C.E.) was accepted as the correct mode to be followed. RH 34a

In Jabneh and in Usha, the predominant cities for the Jewish communities after the destruction of the Temple, the now dominant Rabbi’s issued takkonot to ease the transition of society to a diasporac condition. Among the ritual changes were the designating benedictions accompanying this ancient rite of Shofar sounding, known as Malkuyot (Kingship), Zikronot (Remembrance) and Shoforot (horn blasting).

Since Rabbi Johanan ben Nuri and Rabbi Akiba discuss its place in the liturgy, hence it must have been inaugurated about I20 CE after the Amidah (standing prayer integrtal to Jewish worship) was instituted. Interestingly Rabbi Akiba's practice was followed in Judea; Galilean Jewry followed Rabbi Johanan ben Nuri's mode. (Jerusalem Talmud R.H. 59; Saul Lieberman,(1898-1983), Tosefta Moed R.H. [midrashic literature coterminous with the Talmud), p. 316).

Indeed, an examination Psalm 81 reveals that basically it contains the elements of Malkuyot, Shofrot and Zikronot, though not so named or even stressed. (Hoenig)


Arthur L. Finkle.. Easy Guide to Shofar Sounding, LA: Torah Aura, 2002.

Sidney B. Hoenig, Origins of the Rosh Hashanah Liturgy, The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 57, The Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Volume of the Jewish Quarterly Review (1967), pp. 312-331, University of Pennsylvania Press

JPS Torah Commentary – Leviticus, Commentary Baruch A. Levine, Philadelphia: JPS, 1989

David Wulstan, The Sounding of the Shofar Author(s): Source: The Galpin Society Journal, Vol. 26 (May, 1973), pp. 29-46,Galpin Society.

Solomon Zeitlin, An Historical Study of the First Canonization of the Hebrew Liturgy,The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Jan., 1946), pp. 211-229, University of Pennsylvania Press

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Monday, January 18, 2010

Shofar's Place in the Holy Temple

Shofar: Its Place in the Holy Temple

Arthur L. Finkle
June 4th, 2008

First mentioned in Exodus 19:16 at the Mt. Sinai, to proclaim the awesomeness of the Ten Commandments, the Shofar became an instrument accompanying sacrifices in the Tabernacle and then the First and Second Temples. As the sacrificial cult progressed, the Shofar and two Silver trumpets accompanied some of the rites to enhance their solemnity.

However, on Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year, usually the first new moon in September), the Priests sounded two Shofars and one Trumpet. (See Chofetz Chaim, Mishnah Berurah 586 et seq.) Another differing source indicates that, although normally the trumpet plays the long notes and a Shofar sounds the short notes. On Rosh Hashanah, however, the trumpet takes the short notes; the Shofar, long notes. See Rosh Hashanah 33b. Either way, the Shofar accompanied the special sacrifices on Rosh Hashanah, the holiday designated as “Yom Teruah” (”A day of blowing”; Num. 29:1). The Shofar also proclaimed the Jubilee Year on Yom Kippur (Lev. 25:9–10). The special year freed property to its original owners, forgave debts and gave freedom to slaves, among other things.

The ancients also used it to accompany other musical instruments (Ps. 98:6); in processionals (Josh. 6:4ff.); as a signal (Josh. 6:12ff., II Sam. 15:10); as a call to war (Judg. 3:27); and to induce fear (Amos 3:6).

At a later period, the Rabbi’s ruled that a congregation used a ram’s horn, recalling the binding of Isaac for whose sacrifice a ram was substituted. (RH 16a; see Gen. 22:13). The Rabbi’s also preferred a curved Shofar, symbolizing humankind’s bowing in submission to God’s will (Rosh Hashanah 26b)
Although Hebrew Scripture is silent on the reason a Shofar specifically accompanies holy events. The Rabbi’s gave their oral interpretations. Saadiah Gaon (see Abudraham ha-Shalem, ed. S. Krauser (1959), 269–70) states:
1. Trumpets are sounded at a coronation and God is hailed as King on this day.
2. The Shofarheralds the beginning of the penitential season (from Rosh Hashanah to the Day of Atonement).
3. The Torah was given on Sinai accompanied by blasts of the Shofar.
4. The prophets compare their message to the sound of the Shofar.
5. The conquering armies that destroyed the Temple sounded trumpet blasts.
6. The ram was substituted for Isaac.
7. The prophet asks: “Shall the horn be blown in a city, and the people not tremble?” (Amos 3:6).
8. The prophet Zephaniah speaks of the great “day of the Lord” (Judgment Day) as a “day of the horn and alarm” (Zeph. 1:14, 16).
9. The prophet Isaiah speaks of the great Shofar which will herald the messianic age (Isa. 27:13).
10. The Shofar will be sounded at the resurrection.

Maimonides writes:
Awake from your slumbers, ye who have fallen asleep in life, and reflect on your deeds. Remember your Creator. Be not of those who miss reality in the pursuit of shadows, and waste their years in seeking after vain things which neither profit nor save. Look well to your souls and improve your character. Forsake each of you his evil ways and thoughts.” (Yad, Teshuvah 3:4)

In addition to Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, the Priests of the sacrificial cult used the Shofar for the water libation for Sukkot (Succah 48b);; for the Additional Offerings of Shabbat: (Rosh Hashanah 31a); For the bringing of the Pesach Offering (Pesachim 64a, 95a, 95b; Succah 54a-b): and for the bringing of First Fruits (festival of Shavuot) (Lev 23:9-14; (Succah 47b)
In all fairness, there are other interpretations of the use of the trumpet and the Shofar by distinguishing “Short and Long Blasts.” Judah Zoldah of Bar Ilan University indicates:

From the verse in Psalms (98:6) it becomes clear that we are to sound trumpets and a Shofar before the Lord when we are commanded to sound short blasts and not long ones: “With trumpets and the blast of the horn [Shofar] raise a shout before the Lord, the king” (Ps. 98:6). Hence we can answer the question we posed above: On joyous occasions and festivals, as well as new moon days, when the Torah commands long blasts to be sounded to accompany the sacrificial service, and not short ones, then there is no need for an accompanying Shofar, but only trumpets. The same applies for all the joyous occasions associated with the construction and dedication of the Temple, as well as with the assembly of Haqhel (the assembly of the people at the end of shemitta, the sabbatical year.)

Short blasts connotes remembrance (Num 10:9), such as on Rosh Hashanah and on occasions where there is an aggressor on your land (lev23, 24)

The other occasion for the Shofar is to announce the Jubilee Year.
On the Jubilee year we are commanded to sound short blasts, as it is written, “you shall have the horn sounded [teru'ah=in short blasts] throughout your land” (Lev. 25:9); but the Halakha does not state that whoever does so in the Temple must add trumpets to the horn in order to satisfy the verse in Psalms. This is because the purpose of the horn on the Jubilee year is to announce the liberation of slaves, and not to be remembered before the Lord. As Maimonides wrote in Sefer ha-Mitzvot (pos. command 137): “The long blast on Rosh ha-Shanah is for remembrance before the Lord, and this [on the Jubilee] is to release the slaves.”

The critical difference between Mr. Zoldah’s and mine. My approach bases its interpretation on the Hebrew Scriptures and interpreted by the Rabbi’s, many of whom had teachers and/or relatives who knew what transpired in the Temple. For example, the reason for the moderating shevarim and the Teruah notes is a compromise between two Tannaim whose recollection was different. However, that there was a particular note form the Shofar was established.
For example, the Shulchan Aruch indicates that the Tekiah note is held for a count of nine. There was no doubt about the Tekiah note. However, the Shulchan Aruch expresses doubt among the Sages as to what the Teruah sound was. Some Sages aver that is was a staccato (sharp broken notes); others, broken (shaver) notes. (See Mishnah Berurah 33b)
On the other hand, Mr. Zoldah bases his claim that the Shofar was not used as extensively because of his unique interpretation of biblical interpretations of what a long and short Shofar sound was. He did not pursue his research in the Mishnah or the Talmud. He did not seek witnesses or those who memorized the oral tradition (the Sages).
Accordingly, the witness provided the rationale behind the Shofar’s use in the Holy Temple.

See Additional Resources
• C. Adler: ‘The Shofar, its Use and Origin’, Smithsonian Annual Report (1892
• S. Y. Agnon: Days of Awe (New York, 1948)
• A.L. Finkle, An Easy Guide to Sounding the Shofar, (Los Angelis, 2006
• S. Hofman: Miqra’ey Musica (Tel-Aviv, 1974)
• Sendrey: Music in Ancient Israel (New York, 1969)
• S. Zalman of Ladi: Shulhan Arukh shel haRav (Vilna, 1905)

Sunday, January 10, 2010

Shofar Sounding: Medical Issues

Shofar Sounding: Medical Issues

Arthur L. Finkle

Shofar sounding is akin to Trumpet playing is the sense that the two principal attributes are the embouchure (musculature of the lips and facial muscles), the wind generation and the agility of the tongue.
Insofar as wind generation, we come upon the Valsalva maneuver – a physiological response to holding one’s breath and bearing down (as in childbirth).
The trumpeter’s Valsalva is modified because air is released through the resistance of a .144-inch-diameter hole at the mouthpiece throat and through 5 feet of brass tubing. The respiratory tract pressures generated by trumpet players have been measured and are impressive. Mouthpiece pressure on the lip during normal playing has been measured at 5 to 10 pounds. Higher-register playing produces greater pressure.

In the case of a shofar the aperture is materially less than .144 inches but not as many feet does the wind have to travel unless the shofar is Yemenite.
Brass Instrument Pathology
Problems inside them mouth such as canker sores, braces or “bump” can sideline a player for days. Playing with a cold or worse is also not good for the wind generation. And it may lead to dizziness, decreases the velocity of air generation (decreasing the tonality of the instrument)

Mucous is not the only possible pathological hindrance to a trumpeter’s airflow. Asthma decreases the volume and velocity of exhaled air. Smoking-related obstructive lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis create similar difficulties.

In 1973, a volley of letters to the New England Journal of Medicine described wind parotitis. The typical story of these patients was inflammation of the parotid gland, similar to that occurring in mumps . . . Although one writer postulated that the pressures generated within the mouth forced bacteria from the mouth through the tube that drains saliva into the mouth from the parotid gland, most writers believed the symptoms were caused by trapped air within the gland.
Transient dizziness, as a result of thoracic cavity pressures decreasing blood flow to the head, can occur. In addition, a peculiar syndrome called facial dystonia is the wind instrumentalist’s version of writers’ cramp. This malady causes lips or cheek muscles to lock or stiffen after a period of playing. The cramp disappears with rest but naggingly returns when playing resumes.

The tongue is the precision part of a brass instrumentalist’s anatomy. The tongue needs agility. Anything that swells, cuts, or slows the tongue, such as canker sores, lacerations, and allergic swelling, blurs the attack and can even trigger an unwanted half-tone.

Accordingly, although there are medical consequences inherent in brass instrument playing, one should take care of their health and be very careful when a cold, sore or cramp develops.

Ideas for this article came from Charles R. Meyer, M.D., “The Perils of Trumpeting,” Minnesota Medicine, Minnesota Medical Association, February 2003/Volume 86 Accessed June 14, 2006
For more information about Shofar and other Holy Temple instruments.

We have three websites

1) Shofar Sounders WebPage

2) Joint Effort with Michael Chusid, an expert Shofar sounder and commentator

3) Shofar WebPage
If you have any questions or comments, do not hesitate to ask.

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Saturday, January 2, 2010

Shofar as a Temple Instrument

Shofar as a Temple Musical Instrument
Arthur L. Finkle
The Shofar is the only musical Jewish musical instrument that survived two millennia in its original form and is still used to the sounding of the Shofar. Rabbi Saadia Gaon (11th century) stated that the sound of the Shofar raised awe and emotion in the hearts and souls of the people. Maimonides interpreted the sounding as reminding humankind of its duties to God. The mystical Zohar holds that the sound of the Shofar awakens the Higher Mercy.
The Shofar is the most-mentioned instrument in the Bible (72 times). It held a special religious and secular role in the life of the Jewish people. Only Priests and Levites (as Levites) were allowed to perform the religious function of sounding the Shofar in the Jewish Commonwealth.

The Shofar is first mentioned in Exodus 19:16 at the theophany on Sinai. It was used to proclaim the Jubilee Year and the proclamation of "freedom throughout the land" (Lev. 25:9–10); this verse is engraved upon the Liberty Bell in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was to be sounded on Rosh Ha-Shanah, which is designated as "yom teru'ah" ("A day of blowing"; Num. 29:1). It was also used as an accompaniment to other musical instruments (Ps. 98:6), in processionals (Josh. 6:4ff.), as a signal (Josh. 6:12ff., II Sam. 15:10), as a clarion call to war (Judg. 3:27), and in order to induce fear (Amos 3:6).
When used in the Temple, the Shofar was usually sounded in conjunction with the trumpet (hazozrah). The Talmud (RH 27a) states that the trumpet was made of silver while the processed horn of one of the five species of animal—sheep, goat, mountain goat, antelope, and gazelle—was used to fulfill the ritual commandment of the sounding of the Shofar. It further declares (ibid. 26b) that the Shofar should preferably be made of a ram's or wild goat's horn, because they are curved. Rabbi Judah states "the Shofar of Rosh Ha-Shanah must be of the horn of a ram, to indicate submission." Traditionally a ram's horn is sounded on those days because of its connection with the sacrifice of Isaac (the Akedah), the story of which is the Torah reading for the second day of the festival. Conversely, a cow's horn may not be used because of the incident of the golden calf (RH 3:2). The Shofar may not be painted, though it can be gilded or carved with artistic designs, so long as the mouthpiece remains natural. A Shofar with a hole in its sidewall or a chip in its mouthpieceIN ITS SIDEWALL is deemed halakhically unfit, though it may be used if no other is available (Sh. Ar., OH 586).

The Shofar had several religious roles recorded in the Tanakh (the Bible), such as the transfer of the Ark of the Covenant (2 Sam. 6:15; Chronicles 15:28); the announcement of a New Moon (Psalms 81:4); the beginning of the religious New Year (Num. 29:1; the Day of Atonement (Lev. 25:9); the procession preparatory to the Feast of Tabernacles (Mishnah Hullin 1:7); the libation ceremony (Mishnah: RH 4:9); and the Havdalah ceremony marking the end of a festival (Mishnah, Hullin 1:7)

In addition, the Shofar had a number of secular roles, such as coronating a king (2Sam, 5:10; 1 Kings 1:34; 2 Kings 1:13) and signaling in times of war to assemble troops to attack, to pursue, and to proclaim victory (Num. 10:9; Judges 6:4; Jeremiah 4:5 and Ezekiel 33:3-6)

Sacrificial Cult

After King David supervised the building of the first Temple (1000 BCE), he dedicated holy building as a sanctuary to house the written law (10 commandments) and to practice the sacrificial cult (which was how people in the Middle East worshipped.)

The Sacrificial Ceremony

The Priests consecrated five different sacrificial types preponderantly involving animals or dough. When the Priests stood on top of the ramp holding the parts of sacrifice, placing them into the fire as he carried them up. He then throws the sacrifice into the great fire; he walks over and places it neatly on the burning logs.

Accompanying this ritual were a choral group and a small orchestra. Special lyrics and songs played according the time of the week and the type of sacrifice (the Bible counts 5 different types of sacrifices in Leviticus 1:1).

Leviticus 1-7 gives the most detailed description of Israel's sacrificial system. Rituals performed after childbirth (Leviticus 12:6-8), for an unclean discharge (Leviticus 15:14-15) or hemorrhage (Leviticus 15:29-30), or after a person who was keeping a Nazirite vow was defiled (Numbers 6:10-11) required a burnt offering, as well as a sin offering..

1. Burnt offering (olah). The burnt offering was offered both in the morning and in the evening, as well as on special days such as the Sabbath, the new moon, and the yearly feasts (Numbers 28-29; 2 Kings 16:15; 2 Chronicles 2:4; 2 Chronicles 31:3; Ezra 3:3-6). was defiled (Numbers 6:10-11) required a burnt offering, as well as a sin offering.
The animal for this sacrifice could be a young bull, lamb, goat, turtledove, or young
pigeon; but it had to be a perfect and complete specimen. The type of animal chosen for this sacrifice seems to be dependent on the offerer's financial ability.
2. Grain offering (minchah; “meat offering” in KJV). An offering from the harvest of the land is the only type that required no bloodshed. It was composed of fine flour mixed with oil and frankincense. Sometimes, this offering was cooked into cakes prior to taking it to the priest. These cakes, however, had to be made without leaven. Every grain offering had to have salt in it (Leviticus 2:13), It may have symbolized the recognition of God's blessing in the harvest by a society based to a large degree on agriculture. The bringing of a representative portion of the grain harvest was another outward expression of devotion.
3. Peace offering . This consisted of the sacrifice of a bull, cow, lamb, or goat that had no defect. As with the burnt offering, the individual laid a hand on the animal and killed it. The priests, in turn, sprinkled the blood around the altar. Only certain parts of the internal organs were burned. The priest received the breast and the right thigh (Leviticus 7:28-36), but the offerer was given much of the meat to have a meal of celebration (Leviticus 7:11-21).
4. Sin offering was designed to deal with sin that was committed unintentionally. The sacrifice varied according to who committed the sin. If the priest or the congregation of Israel sinned, then a bull was required. A leader of the people had to bring a male goat, while anyone else sacrificed a female goat or a lamb. The poor were allowed to bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons.
5. Guilt offering. This is hard to distinguish from the sin offering (Leviticus 4-5). In Leviticus 5:6-7, the guilt offering is called the sin offering. Both offerings also were made for similar types of sin. The guilt offering was concerned supremely with restitution. Someone who took something illegally was expected to repay it in full plus 20 percent of the value and then bring a ram for the guilt offering. Other instances in which the guilt offering was prescribed included the cleansing of a leper (Leviticus 14:1), having sexual relations with the female slave of another person (Leviticus 19:20-22), and for the renewing of a Nazirite vow that had been broken (Numbers 6:11-12).
The burnt, grain, peace, sin, and guilt offering composed the basic sacrificial system of Israel. These sacrifices were commonly used in conjunction with each other and were carried out on both an individual and a corporate basis. The sacrificial system taught the necessity of dealing with sin and, at the same time, demonstrated that God had provided a way for dealing with sin.
Although the Prophets excoriated the sacrificial rites because the people seemed to be more impressed with ritual than the reason why the rituals were offered, the Prophets, conceding the collective mores of the people, did not want to abolish the sacrificial system.
Interestingly the sacrifice system is found in the New Testament. The New Testament consistently describes Jesus’ death in sacrificial terms. Hebrews portrays Jesus as the sinless high priest who offered himself up as a sacrifice for sinners (Leviticus 7:27). The book ends with an encouragement to offer sacrifices of praise to God through Jesus.
After the Romans destroyed the Holy Temple, the sacrificial cult terminated. During this time, moreover, the early Church also disbanded the sacrificial rites because Christianity began to differ materially form Judaism.

Thereafter, two Priests stood atop of a marble stand near the altar signaling trumpet blasts: tekiah, tekiah and teruah. A long note followed a series of short notes; then another long note.

On Rosh Hashanah and other full holidays (Full holidays are generally a Rosh Hashana, Yom Kippur and the three pilgrmage fesitvals – Sukot, Pesach and Shavuot) a single Priest perfected two sacrifices in honor of the full holiday, Note that festivals such as Hanukah and Purim), are not considered full holidays requiring an extra sacrifice. On Rosh Hashanah, something special occurred during the special sacrifice. Arguably two Shofar Sounders played the long notes and one Trumpet player played the short note. Accordingly, Rosh HaShanah is called Yom Teruah (the day of the blast) Otherwise, the Trumpets had “top billing.” Rosh Hashanah27a, supports this claim: “Said Raba or it may have been R. Joshua B. Levi: What is the scriptural warrant fore this? – Because it is written, “With trumpets and the sound of the Shofar shout ye before the King in the Temple, we require trumpets and the sound of the Shofar; elsewhere not.” See also Sidney B. Hoenig, Origins of the Rosh Hashanah Liturgy, The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 57, The Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Volume of the Jewish Quarterly Review (1967), pp. 312-331. • Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press. Accessed December 31, 2009

Indeed, on Yom Kippur, the Shofar was sounded to announce the Jubilee Year (every 50-years, Jews were granted freedom, forgiveness and debts and reclamation of sold lands. Shofar first indicated in Yovel (Jubilee Year - Lev. 25:8-13). Indeed, in Rosh Hashanah 33b, the sages ask why the Shofar sounded in Jubilee year. Further support is found in Rosh Hashanah 29a, where the Talmud talks of trumpets for sacrifices but Shofar in the Jubilee Year does not apply to priests who are exempt from the obligations of the jubilee. Perhaps, we have the first mention of Shofar Sounding by non-Priests. Perhaps the first distancing away from the Sacrificial Cult.

Otherwise, for all other special days, the Shofar is sounded shorter and two special silver Trumpets announced the sacrifice.

When the trumpets sound the signal, all the people who are within the sacrifice prostate themselves, stretching out flat, face down and on the ground.

Indeed, the idea that rabbinic prayer modeled itself of that of the
Temple is supported by:

• Jeffrey H. Tigay. On Some Aspects of Prayer in the Bible, AJS Review, Vol. 1, (1976), pp. 363-379, Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Association for Jewish Studies

• Holman Bible Dictionary:

• Arthur L. Finkle, , Easy Guide to Shofar Sounding, Torah Aura, Los Angeles, CA, 2002.

Further support for this occurrence come from Alfred Edersheim, a 19th century biblical scholar:

The Shofar was blown at the temple to begin the Sabbath each week. There was within the temple an inscription on the lintel of the wall at the top of the Temple that said, "To the house of the blowing of the trumpet (Shofar)". Each Sabbath 2 men with silver trumpets and a man with a Shofar made three trumpet blasts twice during the day. On Rosh haShanah, this was different. The Shofar is the primary trumpet. According to Leviticus 23:24 and Numbers 29, Rosh HaShanah is the day of the blowing of the trumpets. The original name is Yom (Day) Teruah (The staccato sound of the horn, which also means “Shout”). According to the Mishnah (Rosh HaShanah 16a, Mishnah RH 3:3), the trumpet used for this purpose is the ram's horn, not trumpets made of metal as in Numbers 10. On Rosh HaShanah, a Shofar delivers the first blast, a silver trumpet the second, and then the Shofar the third.
Alfred Edersheim, by boldly setting out his aim: It has been my..." published in 1874, republished by Gregal Publishing, Grand Rapids, MI 1997.
Another source bespeaks this conclusion:
According to rabbinic tradition, “In the Temple on Rosh Hashanah two men blowing silver trumpets stood on either side of the one who blows the Shofar. Citing the Gemara, referring to verses [Psalms 47:5; 81:3; 98:6; 150:3] requiring trumpets along with the Shofar,”we also read that, “A community beset by calamity is under a Rabbinic obligation to...[be] assembled for supplication and prayer, and this is always accomplished with trumpets, as written in Numbers 10:2”
And they shall be yours for summoning the assembly....we sound the trumpets in order to stir the hearts of the people and bring them to repentance by causing them to realize that the disaster resulted because of their sins. In the Temple, Shofars were blown along with the trumpets. The Shofar [blows] short...and the trumpets [blow] long...for the primary commandment is with trumpets.”
In these rabbinic statements, the word “Shofar” is footnoted: “The use of two Shofars, one on each side, is a Rabbinic innovation, to publicize that the special mitzvah of the day is with trumpets (Rosh HaShanah also called Yom Teruah).” (Schottenstein Gemara, chap. 3, “Rosh Hashanah,” pp 24b2, notes 21, 24, 27,28,) “Trumpets” is footnoted with: “The purpose of sounding an instrument on a fast day is to assemble the people for supplication and prayer....blowing the trumpets is more important, for it is mandated by the Pentateuch, whereas the Shofar accompaniment is derived from the aforementioned verse in Psalms” (Schottenstein Gemara, chap. 3, “Rosh Hashanah 24b2, notes 21, 24, 27,28, Mesorah Publications, Brooklyn, NY.) Also see The Writings of Flavius Josephus, “Antiquities of the Jews,” Bk. 3, Chap. 12,
It is also noted that we have confusion as to wher there was a Shofar with two trumpets or two trumpets and a Shofar. This is underastandsable because Rosh HaShana 27a notes trumpets (plural) and Shofar (singular). On the other hand, in The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (Musical instruments) p 172) the trumpets (chuzotzrot) were the the ususal Temple instruments and the Shofar was used only for special occasions.
Moreover, the word for trumpet is used interchangeably with Shofar (See Maimonides, Yad. Hilchot Shofar 21.1; and the baraita in Rosh Hashanah 33b.

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